Research and other reports

Future Fuels CRC Report: Underground Storage of hydrogen

Widespread adoption of hydrogen in Australia as an energy carrier will require storage options to buffer the fluctuations in supply and demand, both for domestic use and for export. Once the scale of storage at a site exceeds tens of tonnes,underground hydrogen storage (UHS) is the preferred option for reasons of both cost and safety.

This report examines the four main geological options for UHS: salt caverns, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns and concludes that there are more than enough prospective storage areas, particularly in depleted gas fields.

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Future Fuels CRC Report: National hydrogen survey

A national survey of over three thousand Australians found that 65 per cent of Australians already support using hydrogen as a fuel and that rose to 90 per cent once respondents were provided with more facts about hydrogen and its uses.

The Future Fuels Cooperative Research Centre engaged the University of Queensland to conduct the national survey to better understand public opinion on using hydrogen and it showed widespread support for producing and using hydrogen both in Australia and for export. The results support the activities happening now in every State to develop Australia’s hydrogen industry.

The survey found:

  • A total of 65 per cent already support using hydrogen as a fuel, with 32 per cent undecided. After finding out more about hydrogen this rose to 90 per cent support with only 7 per cent undecided and 3 per cent opposed.
  • Support for hydrogen was broad-based with similar results across all States and main political party affiliations, with no significant differences, showing broad bipartisan support
  • Respondents who currently use natural gas at home were slightly more supportive of hydrogen than respondents who did not, but the effect size was small which suggests that support for hydrogen is not related to current use of natural gas
  • Awareness about hydrogen is growing, with 40 per cent of respondents having already heard about hydrogen in the media, 27 per cent had heard about hydrogen production projects in Australia, and 21 per cent about blending natural gas and hydrogen for domestic use
  • A total of 75 oer cent of respondents believe climate change is already happening, which is an increase from an earlier 2018 ARENA survey (70.8 per cent).

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Future Fuels CRC Report: Integrated Electricity and Gas Systems Studies: Electrification of Heating

This report aims to demonstrate the potential capabilities of the integrated electricity and gas system (IEGS) modelling tool under development in conducting studies on the electrification of heating for the electricity and gas transmission networks of the state of Victoria as an initial testbed. In particular, the studies consist of assessing the impact of electrification of residential heating on the electricity and gas networks of Victoria, under the “Central” scenario in AEMO’s integrated system plan (ISP) for the year 2025.

The results from these initial studies demonstrate the efficacy of the modelling under development to support techno-economic assessments of future low-carbon scenarios and the importance of bottom-up integrated multi-energy sector, network, and system assessment with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution and suitable operating constraints, which are lacking in most if not all studies performed so far. Next steps envisage the extension of the Victorian system test case to the whole eastern gas transmission network and the National Electricity Market (NEM) transmission network.

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Potential for Gas-Powered Generation to Support Renewables

The Australian electricity sector is in transition to a future with net zero emissions. APGA engaged Frontier Economics to develop a robust and approachable evidence base on the role of gas-powered generation in that transition. This study shows that gas powered generation can play a significant role in a net-zero future by unlocking extremely high levels of renewable generation at low cost, while ensuring a secure and reliable system. Our modelling shows total resource costs are reduced by as much as 36 per cent when gas-powered generation is used to support a renewable electricity system.

Importantly, this study assumes that gas-powered generation will operate much as it operates today, while renewable technologies will continue to fall in cost. The gas industry is, however, seeing high levels of investment in innovation in zero carbon fuels — including hydrogen and biomethane — which have the potential to decarbonise Australia’s domestic gas usage, and underpin a new large-scale export industry. This study has not sought to investigate the additional role that these zero carbon fuels may play in the future in Australia’s electricity sector.

The key findings are outlined in the following subsections of the report:

  • Gas-powered generation can provide support when renewable generation is not available, at lower cost than alternatives.
  • Gas-powered generation provides security that supports high renewable generation.
  • Gas-powered generation is a cost-effective way to manage renewable droughts.
  • The insurance provided by gas-powered generation does not imply significant carbon emissions.
  • Potential developments in the NEM assist gas-powered generation in insuring against renewable droughts.

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The Benefits of Gas Infrastructure to Decarbonise Australia

Frontier Economics was engaged by Australian gas industry associations to undertake a study on the benefits of gas infrastructure to decarbonise Australia.

The objectives of the study were to determine and document an estimate of the value of gas infrastructure in 2050, accounting for Australia’s carbon-emission commitments. Specifically, this includes:

  • Assessing the challenge in decarbonising Australia for the generation, storage and transport of energy.
  • Developing and considering gas infrastructure scenarios for overcoming the challenges of decarbonisation.
  • Valuing each gas infrastructure scenario.
  • Considering policy implications for realising the value of the optimal gas infrastructure scenario.

The study examined four scenarios: Base Case; Electrification Scenario; Renewable Fuels Scenario; Zero Emissions Scenario.

The major conclusions were:

  • Making continued use of existing assets to deliver energy, such as the existing gas transmission and distribution network, where possible, can help avoid the material costs of investing in new assets to deliver energy, such as augmentation of the electricity transmission and distribution network.
  • Our finding that both the Renewable Fuels scenario and the Zero-carbon Fuels scenario is lower cost than the Electrification scenario suggests that there is value in continuing to make use of Australia’s gas network and Australia’s natural gas resources to deliver gaseous fuels to end-use customers.
  • Our finding that both the Renewable Fuels scenario and the Zero-carbon Fuels scenario is lower cost than the Electrification scenario suggests that policies to achieve net zero emissions should be broad-based and should not focus solely on promoting the electrification of all stationary energy end-use.
  • There is significant uncertainty about technological developments and costs over the period to 2050. This means that the actual costs of the scenarios that we have examined will change over time, and new alternative scenarios will emerge over time. Policies to achieve net zero emissions that are broad-based, rather than focused solely on promoting the electrification of all stationary energy end-use, will enable energy sector participants and their customers to respond flexibly to these technology and cost changes to lower costs.

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